The Effect of Different Massage Protocols on Running-Based Anaerobic Sprint Test Performance During and After Ramadan

Ramazan BAYER, Özgür EKEN, Fatma Hilal YAĞIN, Mehmet ILKIM


Purporse: Different methodologies are applied to increase the performance of athletes in sports involving high-intensity activities. Some of these methodologies can be listed as massage applications used before sports activities and listening to music. Listening to music with pre-competition massage treatments can have an impact on performance, but the effect of massage and listening to music during and after Ramadan may arouse curiosity. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of massage and massage + music protocols applied during and after Ramadan on Running-Based Anaerobic Sprint Test Performance (RAST).

Methods: Twenty athletes (age, 21.30± 1.49 years; height, 175.10± 2.51 cm; 74.50± 2.79 kg; BMI 24.30±.75) who exercise regularly participated in the study. The study was carried out using four different protocols during the month of Ramadan (massage/massage+music) and after (massage/massage+music) after a 5-minute warm-up at 72-hour intervals. RAST was applied after massage applications and maximum, minimum, average power and FI values were evaluated after RAST.

Results: It showed that ARMM protocol values were more effective than RM, ARM and RMM protocols.

Conclusions: Massage+listening to music before performing RAST can be recommended to coaches and athletes.

Full Text:



Açak, M., & Öncü, E. H. (2006). Step by step massage teaching. Malatya: size chart.

Andrade, V., Zagatto, A., Kalva-Filho, C., Mendes, O., Gobatto, C., Campos, E., & Papoti, M. (2015). Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test as a Procedure to Evaluate Anaerobic Power. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 36(14), 1156–1162.

Arabaci, R. (2008). Acute effects of pre-event lower limb massage on explosive and high speed motor capacities and flexibility. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine, 7(4), 549–55.

Arroyo-Morales, M., Fernández-Lao, C., Ariza-García, A., Toro-Velasco, C., Winters, M., Díaz-Rodríguez, L., Cantarero-Villanueva, I., Huijbregts, P., &Fernández-De-las-Peñas, C. (2011). Psychophysiological Effects of Preperformance Massage Before Isokinetic Exercise. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 25(2), 481–488.

Atan, T. (2013). Effect of Music on Anaerobic Exercise Performance. Biology of Sport, 30(1), 35–39.

Azizi, F. (2010). Islamic Fasting and Health. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, 56(4), 273–282.

Ballmann, C. G., McCullum, M. J., Rogers, R. R., Marshall, M. M., & Williams, T. D. (2018). Effects of Preferred vs. Nonpreferred Music on Resistance Exercise Performance. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 35(6).

Bayer, R., & Eken, Ö. (2021). Some anaerobic performance variations from morning to evening: massage affects performance and diurnal variation. Revista on Line de Política e Gestão Educacional, 2459-2474.

Bayer, R., & Eken, Ö. (2022). Effects of Time-of-Day on Repeated Sprint Performance of Aromatherapy Massage Applied Young Futsal Players. Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, 16(2), 384–389.

Ben Salama, F., Hsairi, M., Belaid, J., Achour, N., Achour, A., & Nacef, T. (1993). Food intake and energy expenditure in high school athletes before, during and after the month of Ramadan: effect of fasting on performance. La Tunisie Medicale, 71(2), 85–9.

Boukhris, O., Hill, D. W., Ammar, A., Trabelsi, K., Hsouna, H., Abdessalem, R., Mezghanni, N., Souissi, N., Bragazzi, N. L., Chamari, K., & Chtourou, H. (2022). Longer Nap Duration During Ramadan Observance Positively Impacts 5-m Shuttle Run Test Performance Performed in the Afternoon. Frontiers in Physiology, 13.

Bowers, R., Foss, M., & Fox, E. (2012). Beden Eğitimi ve Sporun Fizyolojik Temelleri. Ankara: Spor Yayınevi.

Brohmer, R., & Becker, C. (2006). Effects of music on wingate performance. J. Undergrad. Kinesiol. Res., 2, 1-7.

Brooks, K., & Brooks, K. (2010). Difference in Wingate power output in response to music as motivation. J. Exerc. Physiol., 13, 14-20.

Buchheit, M. (2005). The 30-15 intermittent fitness Test: A new intermittent running field test for intermittent sport players. Football Sci. Net, 87, 27-34.

Budak, H., Sanioğlu, A., & Taşkin, M. (2020). The Effect of Selected Massage Manipulations on Lactic Acid Elimination After Anaerobic Running. International Journal of Applied Exercise Physiology, 9(1), 133-138.

Castañeda-Babarro, A., Marqués-Jiménez, D., Calleja-González, J., Viribay, A., León-Guereño, P., & Mielgo-Ayuso, J. (2020). Effect of Listening to Music on Wingate Anaerobic Test Performance. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(12), 4564.

Chamari, K., Roussi, M., Bragazzi, N. L., Chaouachi, A., & Abdul, R. A. (2019). Optimizing training and competition during the month of Ramadan: Recommendations for a holistic and personalized approach for the fasting athletes. La Tunisie Medicale, 97(10), 1095–1103.

Chaouachi, A., Coutts, A. J., Chamari, K., Wong, D. P., Chaouachi, M., Chtara, M., Rachida, R., & Amri, M. (2009). Effect of Ramadan Intermittent Fasting on Aerobic and Anaerobic Performance and Perception of Fatigue in Male Elite Judo Athletes. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 23(9), 2702–2709.

Chen, C. C., Chen, Y., Tang, L. C., & Chieng, W. H. (2022). Effects of Interactive Music Tempo with Heart Rate Feedback on Physio-Psychological Responses of Basketball Players. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(8), 4810.

Chromiak, J. A., Smedley, B., Carpenter, W., Brown, R., Koh, Y. S., Lamberth, J. G., Joe, L. E., Abadie, B. R., & Altorfer, G. (2004). Effect of a 10-Week strength training program and recovery drink on body composition, muscular strength and endurance, and anaerobic power and capacity. Nutrition, 20(5), 420–427.

Chtourou, H., Hammouda, O., Souissi, H., Chamari, K., Chaouachi, A., & Souissi, N. (2011). The Effect of Ramadan Fasting on Physical Performances, Mood State and Perceived Exertion in Young Footballers. Asian Journal of Sports Medicine, 2(3).

Dafydd, W. (2012). The Effects of Pre-event massage on sprint performance in females. University of Wales Institute Cardiff.

Eliakim, M., Meckel, Y., Nemet, D., & Eliakim, A. (2007). The Effect of Music during Warm-Up on Consecutive Anaerobic Performance in Elite Adolescent Volleyball Players. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 28(4), 321–325.

Faul, F., Erdfelder, E., Lang, A. G., & Buchner, A. (2007). G*Power 3: A flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences. Behavior Research Methods, 39(2), 175–191.

Ferguson, L. M., Rossi, K. A., Ward, E., Jadwin, E., Miller, T. A., & Miller, W. C. (2009). Effects of Caloric Restriction and Overnight Fasting on Cycling Endurance Performance. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 23(2), 560–570.

Girard, O., & Farooq, A. (2012). Effects of Ramadan fasting on repeated sprint ability in young children. Science & Sports, 27(4), 237–240.

Gueye, L., Seck, D., Samb, A., Cisse, F., & Camara, K. J. M. (2003). Physiological adaptations to exercise during a short-term fasting. Scr Med, 76, 291–296.

Gürkan, A. (2018). Spor Masajı. Iğdır Üniversitesi Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, 1(1), 24-28.

Hamouda, O., Chtourou, H., Farjallah, M. A., Davenne, D., & Souissi, N. (2012). The effect of Ramadan fasting on the diurnal variations in aerobic and anaerobic performances in Tunisian youth soccer players. Biological Rhythm Research, 43(2), 177–190.

Hayakawa, Y., Takada, K., Miki, H., & Tanaka, K. (2000). Effects of Music on Mood during Bench Stepping Exercise. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 90(1), 307–314.

Hutchinson, J. C., Sherman, T., Davis, L., Cawthon, D., & Reeder, N. B. (2011). The influence of asynchronous motivational music on a supramaximal exercise bout. Int. J. Sport Psychol., 42, 135-148.

Jamshidzad, M., Maghsoudipour, M., Zakerian, S. A., Bakhshi, E., & Coh, P. (2018). Impact of music type on motor coordination task performance among introverted and extroverted students. Int. J. Occup. Saf. Ergon, 1-6.

Jelvéus A. (2011). Integrated Sports Massage Therapy A Comprehensive Handbook. Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Karageorghis, C. I., Mouzourides, D. A., Priest, D.-L., Sasso, T. A., Morrish, D. J., & Walley, C. L. (2009). Psychophysical and Ergogenic Effects of Synchronous Music during Treadmill Walking. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 31(1), 18-36.

Karli, U., Guvenc, A., Aslan, A., Hazir, T., & Acikada, C. (2007). Influence of Ramadan Fasting on Anaerobic Performance and Recovery Following Short Time High Intensity Exercise. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine, 6(4), 490–7.

Kirkendall, D. T., Leiper, J. B., Bartagi, Z., Dvorak, J., & Zerguini, Y. (2008). The influence of Ramadan on physical performance measures in young Muslim footballers. Journal of Sports Sciences, 26(sup3), S15–S27.

Koç, H., Curtseit, T., & Curtseit, A. (2009). Influence of music on Wingate Anaerobic test performance. Sci. Mov. Health, 9, 134-137.

MacDougall, J. D., Ward, G. R., Sale, D. G., & Sutton, J. R. (1977). Biochemical adaptation of human skeletal muscle to heavy resistance training and immobilization. Journal of Applied Physiology, 43(4), 700–703.

Margolis, S. A., & Reed, R. L. (2004). Effect of Religious Practices of Ramadan on Sleep and Perceived Sleepiness of Medical Students. Teaching and Learning in Medicine, 16(2), 145–149.

Meckel, Y., Ismaeel, A., & Eliakim, A. (2008). The effect of the Ramadan fast on physical performance and dietary habits in adolescent soccer players. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 102(6), 651–657.

Micklewright, D., Griffin, M., Gladwell, V., & Beneke, R. (2005). Mood state response to massage and subsequent exercise performance. The Sport Psychologist, 19(3), 234-250.

Miyamoto, T., Kamada, H., Tamaki, A., & Moritani, T. (2016). Low-intensity electrical muscle stimulation induces significant increases in muscle strength and cardiorespiratory fitness. European Journal of Sport Science, 16(8), 1104–1110.

Moran, R. N., Hauth, J. M., & Rabena, R. (2018). The effect of massage on acceleration and sprint performance in track & field athletes. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 30, 1-5.

Mosaferchi, S., Sharif-Paghaleh, E., Mortezapour, A., & Heidarimoghadam, R. (2020). Letter to the Editor: The first Ramadan during COVID-19 pandemic: 1.8 billion Muslims should fast or not? Metabolism, 108, 154253.

Nakamura, P. M., Pereira, G., Papini, C. B., Nakamura, F. Y., & Kokubun, E. (2010). Effects of Preferred and Nonpreferred Music on Continuous Cycling Exercise Performance. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 110(1), 257–264.

Ogai, R., Yamane, M., Matsumoto, T., & Kosaka, M. (2008). Effects of petrissage massage on fatigue and exercise performance following intensive cycle pedalling. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 42(10), 534-538.

Peña, I. M., Cho, A. L., Brown, L. E., Coburn, J. W., & Lynn, S. K. (2014). Effects of Pre-Event Massage on Speed in Collegiate Sprinters. California Satate University Fullerton.

Pennington, C. G. (2021). Applying the transtheoretical model of behavioral change to establish physical activity habits. Journal of Education and Recreation Patterns, 2(1), 11–20. DOI:

Pujol, T. J., & Langenfeld, M. E. (1999). Influence of Music on Wingate Anaerobic Test Performance. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 88(1), 292-296.

Rad, L. S., & Hafezi, F. (2013). The effect of motivational music during exercise on the performance of elite female swimmers. Eur. J. Exp. Biol., 3, 106-110.

Roky, R., Houti, I., Moussamih, S., Qotbi, S., & Aadil, N. (2004). Physiological and Chronobiological Changes during Ramadan Intermittent Fasting. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, 48(4), 296–303.

Sales, M., Maciel, A., Aguiar, S., Asano, R., Motta-Santos, D., Moraes, J., Alves, P. M., Santos, P. A., Barbosa, L. P., Ernesto, C., & Sousa, C. (2018). Vertical Jump Is Strongly Associated to Running-Based Anaerobic Sprint Test in Teenage Futsal Male Athletes. Sports, 6(4), 129.

Simpson, S. D., & Karageorghis, C. I. (2006). The effects of synchronous music on 400-m sprint performance. Journal of Sports Sciences, 24(10), 1095–1102.

Slade, J. M., Miszko, T. A., Laity, J. H., Agrawal, S. K., & Cress, M. E. (2002). Anaerobic Power and Physical Function in Strength-Trained and Non-Strength-Trained Older Adults. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 57(3), M168–M172.

Souissi, N., Gauthier, A., Sesboüé, B., & Davenne, D. (2004). Circadian Rhythms in Two Types of Anaerobic Cycle Leg Exercise: Force-Velocity and 30-s Wingate Tests. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 25(1), 14–19.

Souissi, Nizar, Souissi, H., Sahli, S., Tabka, Z., Dogui, M., Ati, J., & Davenne, D. (2007). Effect of Ramadan on the Diurnal Variation in Short‐Term High Power Output. Chronobiology International, 24(5), 991–1007.

Szabo, A., Small, A., & Leigh, M. (1999). The effects of slow- and fast-rhythm classical music on progressive cycling to voluntary physical exhaustion. J. Sports Med. Phys. Fitness, 39(3), 200–225.

Taoudi, B. M., Roky, R., Toufiq, J., Benaji, B., & Hakkou, F. (1999). Epidemiological study: chronotype and daytime sleepiness before and during Ramadan. Therapie, 54(5), 567-72.

Terry P.C. (2006). Psychophysical effects of music in sport and exercise: An update on theory, research and application. In Psychology bridging the Tasman: Science, culture and practice (pp. 415–419).

Waterhouse, J. (2010). Effects of Ramadan on physical performance: chronobiological considerations. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 44(7), 509-515.

Weerapong, P., Hume, P. A., & Kolt, G. S. (2005). The Mechanisms of Massage and Effects on Performance, Muscle Recovery and Injury Prevention. Sports Medicine, 35(3), 235–256.

WHO. (2020). Guidelines on physical activity and sedentary behaviour: at a glance.

Wilson, D., Drust, B., & Reilly, T. (2009a). Is diurnal lifestyle altered during Ramadan in professional Muslim athletes? Biological Rhythm Research, 40(5), 385–397.

Zagatto, A. M., Beck, W. R., & Gobatto, C. A. (2009). Validity of the Running Anaerobic Sprint Test for Assessing Anaerobic Power and Predicting Short-Distance Performances. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 23(6), 1820–1827.

Zerguini, Y., Kirkendall, D., Junge, A., & Dvorak, J. (2007). Impact of Ramadan on physical performance in professional soccer players. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 41(6), 398-400.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

The Journal of Education and Recreation Patterns © 2023 by The Journal of Education and Recreation Patterns is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0