The Effect of Attitudes Towards Physical Violence and Demographic Variables on Serious Leisure Time Activity Choice

Hasan Tahsin KAVLAK, Hasan Suat AKSU


More than 1.6 million people worldwide lose their lives every year due to violence. This rate makes the phenomenon of violence one of the leading causes of death in the world and can become an element of pressure on both economic and social life. It is extremely important to evaluate the solution proposals for the phenomenon of violence from an interdisciplinary perspective. At this point, it is assumed that there is a relationship between serious leisure activities and violence. Based on this point, the aim of this relational survey research is to determine the extent to which individuals' gender, educational status, weekly participation in serious leisure time activities, and perceptions of violence affect the likelihood of preferring serious leisure time activities. A relationship survey model and a simple random sampling method were used in the study. According to the findings, participants' weekly participation time in serious leisure time activities and educational level are significant predictors of serious leisure time activity choice. On the other hand, a negative relationship was found between the activity duration of serious leisure-time participants and their perceptions of physical violence. As a result, it was revealed that the attitudes towards violence of individuals who participated in outdoor serious leisure time activities were at a lower level compared to individuals who participated in indoor serious leisure time activities.

Keywords: Indoor Recreation Activities, Outdoor Recreation Activities, Serious Leisure Activities, Violence

Full Text:



Abay, E., & Tuğlu, C. (2000). Neurobiology of Violence and Aggression. Clinical Psychiatry, 3, 21-26.

Aksu, H. S., & Varol, F. (2022). Investigation of Perception of Violence in Adolescents and Early Adults According to Recreational Physical Activity, Harmful Habits and Demographic Variables. GSI Journal Serie A: Advancements in Tourism, Recreation and Sports Sciences, 5(2), 269-281.

Anderson, C., Benjamin, A., Wood, P., & Bonacci, A. (2006). Development and testing of the velicer attitudes toward violence scale: evidence for a four-factor model. Aggressive Behavior, 32(2), 122-136.

Anderson, N. E., & Kiehl, K. A. (2014). Psychopathy: Developmental perspectives and their implications for treatment. Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience, 32(1), 103-117.

Aslan, Ş. (2018). Research Methods in Social Sciences. Konya: Eğitim Pub.

Awan, M. S., Malik, N., Sarwar, H., & Waqas, M. (2011). Impact of education on poverty reduction.

Berdychevsky, L., Stodolska, M., & Shinew, K. J. (2022). The Roles of Recreation in the Prevention, Intervention and Rehabilitation Programs Addressing Youth Gang Involvement and Violence. Leisure Sciences, 44(3), 343-365.

Bhasin, S., Woodhouse, L. and Storer, T. W. (2001). Hormones and Sport: Proof of the Effect of Testosterone on Skeletal Muscle. Journal of Endocrinology, 170, 27-38.

Bilgiç, E. (1963). The Understanding of Law in Ancient Mesopotamian Tribes. Journal of Ankara University, Faculty of Language and History-Geography, 21(3-4), 103-119.

Blenkinsopp, J. (2011). Creation, Un-Creation, Re-Creation: A Discursive Commentary on Genesis. T&T Clark International.

Bonal, X. (2007). On global absences: Reflections on the failings in the education and poverty relationship in Latin America. International Journal of Educational Development, 27(1), 86-100.

Chauntry, A. J., Bishop, N. C., Hamer, M., & Paine, N. J. (2022). Sedentary behaviour, physical activity and psychobiological stress reactivity: A systematic review. Biological Psychology, 108374.

Civan, A., Özdemir, İ., Gencer, Y. G. ve Durmaz, M. (2018). Exercise and Stress Hormones. Turkish Journal of Sport Sciences, 2(1), 1-14.

Cowell, A. J. (2006). The relationship between education and health behavior: some empirical evidence. Health Economics, 15(2), 125-146.

Duranoğlu, Y. (2022). Historical Development of the Investigation Phase in Turkish Criminal Procedure Law. Journal of Anadolu University Faculty of Law, 8(1), 167-190.

Evans, G. W., & English, K. (2002). The environment of poverty: Multiple stressor exposure, psychophysiological stress, and socioemotional adjustment. Child Development, 73(4), 1238-1248.

Evans, J. and Pellegrini, A. (1997). Surplus Energy Theory: An Enduring but Inadequate Justification for School Break-Time. Educational Review, 49(3), 229-236.

Godbey, G. (2009). Outdoor recreation, health, and wellness. Outdoor Resources Review Group, 09-21.

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., &Anderson, R. E. (2014). Multivariate Data Analysis. England: Pearson Education Limited.

Hammond, D. E., McFarland, A. L., Zajicek, J. M., & Waliczek, T. M. (2011). Growing minds: The relationship between parental attitudes toward their child's outdoor recreation and their child's health. Hort Technology, 21(2), 217-224.

Iannotti, R. J., Kogan, M. D., Janssen, I., & Boyce, W. F. (2009). Patterns Of Adolescent Physical Activity, Screen-Based Media Use, and Positive and Negative Health Indicators in the US and Canada. Journal of Adolescent Health, 44(5), 493-499.

Jia, R., Carlisle, S., & Vedhara, K. (2022). The association of lifestyle and mood with long-term levels of cortisol: a systematic review. Cogent Psychology, 9(1), 2036487.

Kaplan, S. (1995). The restorative benefits of nature: Toward an integrative framework. Journal of environmental psychology, 15(3), 169-182.

Karakaya, İ. (2012). Bilimsel Araştırma Yöntemleri. A. Tanrıöğen (Ed.) in Bilimsel Araştırma Yöntemleri (s.57-86). Ankara: Anı Pub.

Keniger, L. E., K. J. Gaston, K. N. Irvine, and R. A. Fuller. (2013). “What are the Benefits of Interacting with Nature?” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 10, 913–935.

Kreager, D. A. (2007). Unnecessary Roughness? School Sports, Peer Networks, and Male Adolescent Violence. American Sociological Review, 72(5), 705-724.

Lamb, K. L., Roberts, K., & Brodie, D. A. (1990). Self-perceived health among sports participants and non-sports participants. Social science & Medicine, 31(9), 963-969.

Nakamura, J. and Csikszentmihaly, M. (2009). Flow Theory and Research. Lopez S. J and Synder, C. R. (Ed.) in Oxford Handbook of Positive Psychology (p. 195- 206). New York: Oxford University Press.

Naseri, Z., Farzan, F., & Razavi, S. M. H. (2023). Comparison of Life Satisfaction and Aggression Dimensions of Soldiers Serving in Prisons Based on Marital Status and Type of Sport (Water or Land). Journal of Marine Medicine, 5(1), 47-55.

Nattiv, A., Puffer, J. C., & Green, G. A. (1997). Lifestyles and health risks of collegiate athletes: a multi-center study. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 7(4), 262-272.

Özkan, Y., Uysal, M., Topçu, G., Sevin, M. D., & Koçak, Y. E. (2018). Validity and Reliability Study of the Turkish Adaptation of the Attitudes Towards Violence Scale. Turkish Journal of Social Research, 22(4), 821-844.

Pasanen, T. P., Tyrväinen, L., & Korpela, K. M. (2014). The relationship between perceived health and physical activity indoors, outdoors in built environments, and outdoors in nature. Applied psychology: Health and Well‐being, 6(3), 324-346.

Porges, S. W. (1997). Emotion: An Evolutionary By-Product of the Neural Regulation of the Autonomic Nervous System. C. S. Carter, I. I. Lederhendle and B. Kirkpatrick (Ed.) in The Intergative Neurobıology of Affiliation (p. 65-80). A Badford Book.

Rasmussen, L. J. H., Moffitt, T. E., Arseneault, L., Danese, A., Eugen-Olsen, J., Fisher, H. L., ... & Caspi, A. (2020). Association of Adverse Experiences and Exposure to Violence İn Childhood And in Adolescence with Inflammatory Burden in Young People. JAMA Pediatrics, 174(1), 38-47.

Silva-Laya, M., D'Angelo, N., García, E., Zúñiga, L., & Fernández, T. (2020). Urban poverty and education. A systematic literature review. Educational Research Review, 29, 100280.

Stacey, N. (1998). Social benefits of education. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 559(1), 54-63.

Stebbins, R. A. (1982). Serious Leisure: A Conceptual Statement. Pacific Sociologicsl Review, 25(2), 251-272.

Stebbins, R. A. (1997). Casual Leisure: A Conceptual Statement. Leisure Studies, 16(1), 17-25.

Stebbins, R. A. (2011). The Semiotic Self and Serious Leisure. The American Sociologist, 42, 238-248.

Terlemez, M. (2019). The Effect of Sport Activity on Self-Confidence, Serotonin and Dopamine. International Journal of Social Sciences, 2(2), 1-6.

Tharshini, N. K., Ibrahim, F., Kamaluddin, M. R., Rathakrishnan, B., & Che Mohd Nasir, N. (2021). The link between individual personality traits and criminality: A systematic review. International journal of environmental research and public health, 18(16), 8663.

UNICEF, (2015). Violent deaths.

UNICEF, (2022). Violen discipline database.

Velicer, W., Huckel, L., & Hansen, C. (1989). A measurement model for measuring attitudes toward violence. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 15(3), 349-364.

Viding, E. ve Frith, U. (2006). Genes for Susceptibility to Violence Lurk in the Brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 103, 6085-6086.

Vollhardt, J. R., Mazur, L. B., & Lemahieu, M. (2014). Acknowledgment after mass violence: Effects on psychological well-being and intergroup relations. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 17(3), 306-323.

WHO, (2002). World report on violence and health: summary. Geneva: World Health Organization.

WHO, (2021). Violence against women.

WHO, (2021a). Gender based violence is a public health issue: using a health systems approach.

WHO. (2018) Violence against women.

WHO. (2022). The VPA Approach.

Ybarra, M. L., & Thompson, R. E. (2018). Predicting The Emergence of Sexual Violence in Adolescence. Prevention Science, 19(4), 403-415.

Yönet, E., Çalık, F., Yaşartürk, F. and Çimen K. (2016). Investigation of High School Students' Participation in Recreational Activities and Aggression-Violence Tendencies. International Journal of Science Culture and Sport, 4(Special Issue 1), 368-382.

Yuliadarwati, N. M., Rahmanto, S., & Oktavianti, F. (2022). The Relationship Between Physical Activity and Sleep Quality in the Elderly in the Malang City Community. KnE Medicine, 93-96.

Zajacova, A., & Lawrence, E. M. (2018). The relationship between education and health: reducing disparities through a contextual approach. Annual Review of Public Health, 39, 273-289.

Zimmerman, E., & Woolf, S. H. (2014). Understanding the relationship between education and health. NAM Perspectives.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

The Journal of Education and Recreation Patterns © 2023 by The Journal of Education and Recreation Patterns is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0