Investigation of the Effect of Push-Up Exercises with and without Suspension on Some Motor Skills Applied to Young Volleyball Athletes

Fatih ERİŞ



The aim of this study was to compare the relationships between some motor skills in the upper extremity region of 20 male volleyball players aged 15-18 years, competing in the 8th Group of the 2nd League of the Turkish Volleyball Federation, with and without suspended and unsuspended Push-Up (PU) bosu ball exercises applied for 3 sessions every week for 8 weeks. In addition to the normal training program, the first group was trained with unsuspended (PU) and the second group was trained with suspended (PU) for 8 weeks. Both groups performed Medicine Ball Throw to evaluate upper extremity strength, Closed Kinetic Chain Upper Extremity Stability Test to evaluate endurance and Upper Extremity Y-Balance Test to evaluate balance before and after the training program.  As a result of this study, the difference values of the test results before and after the training were compared. A significant difference was found between the groups in the upper extremity right and left arm 0,000, Y Balance Test Medial dominant 0,000, and non-dominant 0,004, Superolateral dominant and non-dominant 0,000, Inferiorlateral dominant 0,024 and non-dominant 0,000, chest and overhead 0,000 Health Ball Throw test difference changes (p<0,05).  Performing the applications used in classical training methods on unstable grounds can increase the motivation of volleyball athletes and contribute to their performance. As a result, it seems that unsuspended and suspended (PU) exercises can increase the levels of medicine ball throwing, closed kinetic chain upper extremity stability test and upper extremity Y-balance test with the exercises applied, although the levels are different. Further studies on the subject by increasing the number of participants in different groups and using electronic devices will be useful.

Keywords: Bosu Ball, Motor Skills, Push-Up, Upper extremity, Volleyball

Full Text:



Audenaert, D., Baele, J., & Christiaens, J. (2017). A normative database of functional (shoulder) tests within healthy male overhead athletes. Diss (Doctoral dissertation, Master's thesis, Ghent University).

Beach T A, Howarth S J, Callaghan J P.,(2007) Muscular contribution to low-back loading and stiffness during standard and suspended push-ups. Hum Mov Sci 2008; 27(3), 457-472.

Bayrak, G. (2018). Sağlıklı genç erkeklerde süspansiyonlu ve süspansiyonsuz yapılan push-up egzersizlerinin karşılaştırılması (Master's thesis, Pamukkale Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü).

Behm D G, Anderson K G.(2006).The role of instability with resistance training. J Strength Cond Res; 20(3), 716.

Bettendorf, B. (2010). TRX suspension training bodyweight exercises: scientific foundations and practical applications. San Francisco: Fitness Anywhere Inc.

Borms D, Maenhout A, Cools AM.(2016) Upper Quadrant Field Tests and Isokinetic Upper Limb Strength in Overhead Athletes. J Athl Train.;51(10):789-96.

Borreani S, Calatayud J, Colado J C, Moya-Nájera D, Triplett N T, Martin F.(2015) Muscle activation during push-ups performed under stable and unstable conditions. J Exerc Sci Fit; 13(2), 94-98.

Butler RJ, Myers HS, Black D, Kiesel KB, Plisky PJ, Moorman CT, 3rd, et al. Bilateral differences in the upper quarter function of high school aged baseball and softball players. International journal of sports physical therapy. 2014;9(4):518-24.

Calatayud J, Borreani S, Colado J C, Martin F, Batalha N, Silva A.(2014). Muscle activation differences between stable push-ups and push-ups with a unilateral v-shaped suspension system at different heights. Motricidade 2014; 10(4).

Cogley R M, Archambault T A, Fibeger J F, Koverman M.(2005).Comparison of muscle activation using various hand positions during the push-up exercise. J Strength Cond Res 2005; 19(3), 628.

Dannelly B D, Otey S C, Croy T, Harrison B, Rynders C A, Hertel J N, Weltman A. The effectiveness of traditional and sling exercise strength training in women. J Strength Cond Res 2011; 25(2), 464-471.

De Mey K, Danneels L, Cagnie B, Borms D, T'Jonck Z, Van Damme E, Cools A M.( 2014). Shoulder muscle activation levels during four closed kinetic chain exercises with and without Redcord slings. J Strength Cond Res; 28(6), 1626-1635.

Dillman C J, Murray T A, Hintermeister R A.( 1994) Biomechanical differences of open and closed chain exercises with respect to the shoulder. J Sport Rehabil; 3(3), 228-238.

Ellenbecker TS MR, Davies GJ.( 2000). Closed kinetic chain testing techniques of the upper extremities. Orthopaedic Physical Therapy Clinics of North America 2000(9):219-29.

Freeman S, Karpowicz A, Gray J, McGill S.(2006). Quantifying muscle patterns and spine load during various forms of the push-up. Med Sci Sports Exerc; 38(3), 570- 577.

Gorman PP, Butler RJ, Plisky PJ, Kiesel KB.(2012). Upper Quarter Y Balance Test: reliability and performance comparison between genders in active adults. J Strength Cond Res ;26(11):3043-8

Harris C, Wattles AP, DeBeliso M, Sevene-Adams PG, Berning JM, Adams KJ.(2011). The seated medicine ball throw as a test of upper body power in older adults. J Strength Cond Res.;25(8):2344-8.

Kibele A, Behm D G. (2009). Seven weeks of instability and traditional resistance training effects on strength, balance and functional performance. J Strength Cond Res 23(9), 2443-2450.

Kim, E. R., Oh, J. S., & Yoo, W. G. (2014). Effect of vibration frequency on serratus anterior muscle activity during performance of the push-up plus with a redcord sling. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 26(8), 1275-1276.

Kirkesola G. (2009). Neurac-a new treatment method for long-term musculoskeletal pain. J Fysioterapeuten 2009; 76, 16-25

Kisner C, Colby L A, Borstad J.(2017). Therapeutic exercise: foundations and techniques, Fa Davis.

Myers H, Poletti M, Butler R.(2016). Functional Performance on the Upper Quarter YBalance Test Differs Between High School Wrestlers and Baseball Players. J Sport Rehabil. 2016 Aug 24:1-20. https:// 10.1123/jsr.2015-0168

Negra Y, Chaabene H, Sammoud S, Bouguezzi R, Mkaouer B, Hachana Y and Granacher U.(2017). "Effects of plyometric training on components of physical fitness in prepuberal male soccer athletes: The role of surface instability." J Strength Cond Res 2017; 31(12): 3295-3304.

Negrete RJ, Hanney WJ, Kolber MJ, Davies GJ, Ansley MK, McBride AB. (2010). Reliability, minimal detectable change, and normative values for tests of upper extremity function and power. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24(12):3318-25.

Roush JR, Kitamura J, Waits MC.(2007). Reference Values for the Closed Kinetic Chain Upper Extremity Stability Test (CKCUEST) for Collegiate Baseball Players. North American Journal of Sports Physical Therapy : NAJSPT. 2007;2(3):159-63.

Sezik, A. Ç. (2018). The Relationship between Scapula Position and Upper Extremity Strength, Power, Endurance and Balance in Adolescent Volleyball Players.

Snarr R L, Esco M R.( 2013). Electromyographic comparison of traditional and suspension pushups. J Hum Kinet; 39(1), 75-83.

Sparkes R, Behm D G.(2010). Training adaptations associated with an 8-week instability resistance training program with recreationally active individuals. J Strength Cond Res 2010; 24(7), 1931-1941.

Tucci H T, Martins J, de Carvalho Sposito G, Camarini P M F, de Oliveira A S.(2014). Closed Kinetic Chain Upper Extremity Stability test (CKCUES test): a reliability study in persons with and without shoulder impingement syndrome. BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 15(1), 1.

Westrick R B, Miller J M, Carow S D, Gerber J P.(2012). Exploration of the y-balance test for assessment of upper quarter closed kinetic chain performance. Int J Sports Phys Ther; 7(2), 139.

Yarım, İ., Özcan, N., Yelken, M. E., & Uzun, M. E. (2020). Comparing Balance Abilities in Different Sports. Journal of Education and Recreation Patterns, 1(1).

Yılmaz, E. (1997). A Research on Statistical and Biomechanical Analysis of Offense Types in Volleyball. Gazi Journal of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, 2(1), 15-22.

Yeniçeri, S., ve Hindistan, S. Y. (1998). American Sports Education Program Volleyball Coaching for Children and Youth, (Translation). Istanbul: Beyaz Publications.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

The Journal of Education and Recreation Patterns © 2023 by The Journal of Education and Recreation Patterns is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0